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James Gordon Brown (* Februar in Glasgow, Schottland) ist ein. Mary Soames - Schlacht von Gallipoli - Hosenbandorden -. Robert Anthony Eden, 1. Earl of Avon, KG (* Juni in Rushyford.

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Die daraus resultierenden Forderungen an die Nuklearindustrie werden zum Teil für den Windscale-Brand im Oktober verantwortlich gemacht. Keiner Partei, schon gar keiner Parteidoktrin verpflichtet, wechselte er die politischen Lager, wann immer es ihm nötig und opportun erschien. Oktober wieder an die Macht kamen, wurde Macmillan unter Premierminister Winston Churchill Wohnungsbauminister und sollte nun das Versprechen der Tories erfüllen, Er schlug daher sogar in einem internen Memorandum vor, de Gaulle einen Handel anzubieten, in dem die Franzosen stärker in die britisch-amerikanische Weltpolitik eingebunden würden. In der Liberalen Partei wanderte Churchill auf der politischen Skala immer weiter nach links. Mai Konservativ Tony Blair 2. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Die Unterhauswahl vom Juli hatte dessen Labour Party gewonnen, weil sie den Briten bessere Schulen, bessere Wohnungen und ein staatliches Gesundheitswesen versprach. Er zog sich auf seinen Landsitz Chartwell in Kent zurück, wo er sich seinem Hobby, der Malerei, vor allem aber seiner journalistischen und schriftstellerischen Arbeit widmete. März Tory Henry Addington Herbert Henry Asquith später 1. Earl of Wilmington Allerdings schlug sein Versuch fehl, als Kandidat für den Rat von Hackney aufgestellt zu werden. Mit Churchill als Spitzenkandidat errangen die Konservativen im Oktober einen knappen Wahlsieg , weil er diesmal die Wahlkampfthemen der Labour Party übernommen und den Briten eine Fortführung des staatlichen Wohnungsbauprogramms versprochen hatte. In anderen Projekten Commons Wikinews. Liste der britischen Premierminister Im PM die einzelnen Premierminister, bei Premierminister mit mehreren Amtszeiten folgen dessen persönlichen Amtszeiten Klammern. Spieler der em find no man, at all intellectual, who is willing to leave London. Studies in migration and diaspora. Acts from Liverpool have had 54 UK chart number one hit singles, more per capita than any other city worldwide. Network Rail owns and manages most of the fixed assets tracks, signals etc. Fromthe economy was helped by synonym zu etwas führen inflow of substantial North Sea oil revenues. Archived from the original on Beste Spielothek in Lascheiderhof finden June Eurostat uses the sum of the populations of the contiguous urban core and the surrounding commuting zone as its definition. Organisation dfs casino karlsruhe Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original on 10 March The United Kingdom is level auf deutsch for the tradition of 'British Empiricism', Beste Spielothek in Pont-de-Nant finden branch of the philosophy of knowledge that states that only knowledge verified by experience is valid, and 'Scottish Philosophy', sometimes referred to as the ' Scottish School of Common Sense '.

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Für die USA halt, aber die deutschen Wähler wollen es so und diesen eindringlichen Wählerwillen muss man eben akzeptieren. Tony Blair and the Politics of Public Leadership. Churchills Kriegsstrategie habe dessen Sieg verhindert und damit den der Alliierten später erst möglich gemacht. Wir sind verbunden, aber nicht eingeschlossen. Juni in Washington an der Trauerfeier teilzunehmen. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte. William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 3. Februar trat sie gegen Edward Heath als Parteiführer der Konservativen an und gewann zunächst die erste Runde einer Kampfabstimmung mit zu Stimmen gegen Heath, der daraufhin vom Parteivorsitz zurücktrat. Spätestens Mitte , als Briten und Amerikaner die uneingeschränkte Luftherrschaft über dem Reichsgebiet errungen hatten, erreichten diese Flächenbombardierungen eine Eigendynamik, die auch Churchill nicht mehr stoppen konnte oder wollte.

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Korps , General Charles Keightley , traf. Jahrestag der Bestattung wurde als offizieller Gedenktag mit Gottesdiensten begangen. Juli fanden Vorwahlgänge innerhalb der Fraktion statt. In einer Rede auf der Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz am 5. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. April Liberal Herbert Henry Asquith 7. Ares Verlag, Graz , S.

In , its population was around 18,; by it had grown to nearly , London was also a centre of England's Jewish population before their expulsion by Edward I in Violence against Jews took place in , after it was rumoured that the new King had ordered their massacre after they had presented themselves at his coronation.

During the Tudor period the Reformation produced a gradual shift to Protestantism, and much of London property passed from church to private ownership, which accelerated trade and business in the city.

But the reach of English maritime enterprise hardly extended beyond the seas of north-west Europe. The commercial route to Italy and the Mediterranean Sea normally lay through Antwerp and over the Alps ; any ships passing through the Strait of Gibraltar to or from England were likely to be Italian or Ragusan.

Upon the re-opening of the Netherlands to English shipping in January , there ensued a strong outburst of commercial activity.

London became the principal North Sea port, with migrants arriving from England and abroad. The population rose from an estimated 50, in to about , in In the 16th century William Shakespeare and his contemporaries lived in London at a time of hostility to the development of the theatre.

By the end of the Tudor period in , London was still very compact. After an initial advance by the Royalists in , culminating in the battles of Brentford and Turnham Green , London was surrounded by a defensive perimeter wall known as the Lines of Communication.

The lines were built by up to 20, people, and were completed in under two months. London was plagued by disease in the early 17th century, [90] culminating in the Great Plague of —, which killed up to , people, or a fifth of the population.

The Great Fire of London broke out in in Pudding Lane in the city and quickly swept through the wooden buildings. During the Georgian era , new districts such as Mayfair were formed in the west; new bridges over the Thames encouraged development in South London.

In the east, the Port of London expanded downstream. London's development as an international financial centre matured for much of the s.

During the 18th century, London was dogged by crime, and the Bow Street Runners were established in as a professional police force.

The coffeehouse became a popular place to debate ideas, with growing literacy and the development of the printing press making news widely available; and Fleet Street became the centre of the British press.

Following the invasion of Amsterdam by Napoleonic armies, many financiers relocated to London, especially a large Jewish community, and the first London international issue [ clarification needed ] was arranged in Around the same time, the Royal Navy became the world leading war fleet, acting as a serious deterrent to potential economic adversaries of the United Kingdom.

The repeal of the Corn Laws in was specifically aimed at weakening Dutch economic power. London then overtook Amsterdam as the leading international financial centre.

You find no man, at all intellectual, who is willing to leave London. No, Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford.

London was the world's largest city from c. The Metropolitan Board of Works oversaw infrastructure expansion in the capital and some of the surrounding counties; it was abolished in when the London County Council was created out of those areas of the counties surrounding the capital.

London was bombed by the Germans during the First World War , [] and during the Second World War, the Blitz and other bombings by the German Luftwaffe killed over 30, Londoners, destroying large tracts of housing and other buildings across the city.

From the s onwards, London became home to a large number of immigrants, primarily from Commonwealth countries such as Jamaica, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, [] making London one of the most diverse cities worldwide.

In , the Festival of Britain was held on the South Bank. Primarily starting in the mids, London became a centre for the worldwide youth culture , exemplified by the Swinging London subculture [] associated with the King's Road , Chelsea [] and Carnaby Street.

Greater London's population declined steadily in the decades after the Second World War, from an estimated peak of 8. This was borne out of London's ever-increasing role as a major international financial centre during the s.

The Greater London Council was abolished in , which left London without a central administration until when London-wide government was restored, with the creation of the Greater London Authority.

In , London named alongside New York City and Hong Kong as Nylonkong , being hailed as the world's three most influential global cities.

The administration of London is formed of two tiers: Citywide administration is coordinated by the Greater London Authority GLA , while local administration is carried out by 33 smaller authorities.

Certain functions, such as waste management , are provided through joint arrangements. It is run by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority and is the third largest fire service in the world.

London is the seat of the Government of the United Kingdom. Many government departments, as well as the Prime Minister's residence at 10 Downing Street , are based close to the Palace of Westminster , particularly along Whitehall.

Crime rates vary widely by area, ranging from parts with serious issues to parts considered very safe.

Today crime figures are made available nationally at Local Authority [] and Ward level. Recorded crime has been rising in London, notably violent crime and murder by stabbing and other means have risen.

There have been 50 murders from the start of to mid April Funding cuts to police in London are likely to have contributed to this, though other factors are also involved.

London , also referred to as Greater London, is one of nine regions of England and the top-level subdivision covering most of the city's metropolis.

The Greater London boundary has been aligned to the M25 motorway in places. Outward urban expansion is now prevented by the Metropolitan Green Belt , [] although the built-up area extends beyond the boundary in places, resulting in a separately defined Greater London Urban Area.

Beyond this is the vast London commuter belt. Within London, both the City of London and the City of Westminster have city status and both the City of London and the remainder of Greater London are counties for the purposes of lieutenancies.

Its position was formed through constitutional convention , making its status as de facto capital a part of the UK's uncodified constitution.

The capital of England was moved to London from Winchester as the Palace of Westminster developed in the 12th and 13th centuries to become the permanent location of the royal court , and thus the political capital of the nation.

Historically London grew up at the lowest bridging point on the Thames. The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensive marshlands ; at high tide, its shores reached five times their present width.

Since the Victorian era the Thames has been extensively embanked , and many of its London tributaries now flow underground. The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding.

In , a decade of work began on the construction of the Thames Barrier across the Thames at Woolwich to deal with this threat. While the barrier is expected to function as designed until roughly , concepts for its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed.

London has a temperate oceanic climate Köppen: Summers are generally warm, sometimes hot. Winters are generally cool with little temperature variation.

Spring and autumn can be pleasant. London's vast urban area is often described using a set of district names, such as Bloomsbury , Mayfair , Wembley and Whitechapel.

These are either informal designations, reflect the names of villages that have been absorbed by sprawl, or are superseded administrative units such as parishes or former boroughs.

Such names have remained in use through tradition, each referring to a local area with its own distinctive character, but without official boundaries.

Since Greater London has been divided into 32 London boroughs in addition to the ancient City of London. The West End is London's main entertainment and shopping district, attracting tourists.

The East End is the area closest to the original Port of London , known for its high immigrant population, as well as for being one of the poorest areas in London.

London's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style, partly because of their varying ages. Many grand houses and public buildings, such as the National Gallery , are constructed from Portland stone.

Some areas of the city, particularly those just west of the centre, are characterised by white stucco or whitewashed buildings.

Few structures in central London pre-date the Great Fire of , these being a few trace Roman remains, the Tower of London and a few scattered Tudor survivors in the City.

The disused — but soon to be rejuvenated — Battersea Power Station by the river in the south-west is a local landmark, while some railway termini are excellent examples of Victorian architecture , most notably St.

The Monument in the City of London provides views of the surrounding area while commemorating the Great Fire of London , which originated nearby.

Nelson's Column is a nationally recognised monument in Trafalgar Square , one of the focal points of central London.

Older buildings are mainly brick built, most commonly the yellow London stock brick or a warm orange-red variety, often decorated with carvings and white plaster mouldings.

In the dense areas, most of the concentration is via medium- and high-rise buildings. High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protected views of St Paul's Cathedral and other historic buildings.

Nevertheless, there are a number of very tall skyscrapers in central London see Tall buildings in London , including the storey Shard London Bridge , the tallest building in the European Union.

They indicate that species of flowering plant have been found growing there and that the tidal Thames supports species of fish.

London's wetland areas support nationally important populations of many water birds. Amphibians are common in the capital, including smooth newts living by the Tate Modern , and common frogs, common toads , palmate newts and great crested newts.

On the other hand, native reptiles such as slowworms , common lizards , grass snakes and adders , are mostly only seen in Outer London. Among other inhabitants of London are 10, red foxes , so that there are now 16 foxes for every square mile 2.

These urban foxes are noticeably bolder than their country cousins, sharing the pavement with pedestrians and raising cubs in people's backyards.

Foxes have even sneaked into the Houses of Parliament , where one was found asleep on a filing cabinet. Generally, however, foxes and city folk appear to get along.

A survey in by the London-based Mammal Society found that 80 percent of 3, respondents who volunteered to keep a diary of garden mammal visits liked having them around.

This sample cannot be taken to represent Londoners as a whole. Other mammals found in Greater London are hedgehogs , rats, mice, rabbit, shrew, vole, and squirrels, [] In wilder areas of Outer London, such as Epping Forest , a wide variety of mammals are found including hare , badger , field, bank and water vole , wood mouse , yellow-necked mouse , mole , shrew , and weasel , in addition to fox, squirrel and hedgehog.

A dead otter was found at The Highway, in Wapping , about a mile from the Tower Bridge , which would suggest that they have begun to move back after being absent a hundred years from the city.

Unnatural History of London" shows pigeons using the London Underground to get around the city, a seal that takes fish from fishmongers outside Billingsgate Fish Market , and foxes that will "sit" if given sausages.

Herds of red and fallow deer also roam freely within much of Richmond and Bushy Park. A cull takes place each November and February to ensure numbers can be sustained.

A rare population of melanistic , black fallow deer is also maintained at the Deer Sanctuary near Theydon Bois. Muntjac deer , which escaped from deer parks at the turn of the twentieth century, are also found in the forest.

While Londoners are accustomed to wildlife such as birds and foxes sharing the city, more recently urban deer have started becoming a regular feature, and whole herds of fallow deer come into residential areas at night to take advantage of London's green spaces.

The census recorded that 2,, people or Note that some of the German-born population, in 18th position, are British citizens from birth born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany.

With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was for some time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the most populous city in the world.

Its population peaked at 8,, in immediately before the outbreak of the Second World War, but had declined to 7,, at the Census.

However, the population then grew by just over a million between the and Censuses, to reach 8,, in the latter enumeration. Ethnic groups in the census [].

According to the Office for National Statistics , based on the Census estimates, Indians account for 6.

Chinese peoples account for 1. Black Africans account for 7. Across London, Black and Asian children outnumber White British children by about six to four in state schools.

The census showed that According to the Census , the largest religious groupings are Christians London has traditionally been Christian, and has a large number of churches , particularly in the City of London.

The well-known St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres, [] while the Archbishop of Canterbury , principal bishop of the Church of England and worldwide Anglican Communion , has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth.

Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey. Church attendance continues on a long, slow, steady decline, according to Church of England statistics.

London is also home to sizeable Muslim , Hindu , Sikh , and Jewish communities. Large Hindu communities are in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent , the latter of which hosts what was, until , [] Europe's largest Hindu temple , Neasden Temple.

There are Sikh communities in East and West London, particularly in Southall, home to one of the largest Sikh populations and the largest Sikh temple outside India.

It is the only synagogue in Europe which has held regular services continuously for over years. Stanmore and Canons Park Synagogue has the largest membership of any single Orthodox synagogue in the whole of Europe, overtaking Ilford synagogue also in London in There are many accents traditionally associated with London.

The most well known of the London accents long ago acquired the Cockney label from London's East End , which is heard both in London itself, and across the wider South East England region more generally.

Since the turn of the century the Cockney dialect is less common in the East End and has 'migrated' east to Havering and the county of Essex.

One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to look at relative amounts of office space: London has some of the highest real estate prices in the world.

London is one of the pre-eminent financial centres of the world as the most important location for international finance. For many bankers established in Amsterdam e.

Hope, Baring , this was only time to move to London. The London financial elite was strengthened by a strong Jewish community from all over Europe capable of mastering the most sophisticated financial tools of the time.

By the end of the 19th century, Britain was the wealthiest of all nations, and London a leading financial centre. Kearney's Global Cities Index.

London's largest industry is finance, and its financial exports make it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments. Around , people were employed in financial services in London until mid London has over overseas banks, more than any other city in the world.

Because of its prominent global role, London's economy had been affected by the financial crisis of — However, by the City has recovered; put in place new regulatory powers, proceeded to regain lost ground and re-established London's economic dominance.

Over 70 per cent of the FTSE are within London's metropolitan area, and 75 per cent of Fortune companies have offices in London.

Media companies are concentrated in London and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector.

Many national newspapers are edited in London. In April , the city was among the first to receive a geoTLD. The gas and electricity distribution networks that manage and operate the towers, cables and pressure systems that deliver energy to consumers across the city are managed by National Grid plc , SGN [] and UK Power Networks.

London is one of the leading tourist destinations in the world and in was ranked as the most visited city in the world with over 65 million visits.

In the top most-visited attractions in the UK were all in London. The top 10 most visited attractions were: The number of hotel rooms in London in stood at ,, and is expected to grow over the years.

Transport is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London, [] however the mayor's financial control does not extend to the longer distance rail network that enters London.

In he assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the London Overground network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London Underground, trams and buses.

The lines that formed the London Underground, as well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in when the London Passenger Transport Board or London Transport was created.

Transport for London is now the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the Mayor of London.

London is a major international air transport hub with the busiest city airspace in the world. Eight airports use the word London in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these.

Additionally, various other airports also serve London, catering primarily to general aviation flights. The London Underground , commonly referred to as the Tube, is the oldest [] and third longest [] metro system in the world.

The system serves stations [] and was formed from several private companies, including the world's first underground electric line, the City and South London Railway.

There are more than railway stations in the London Travelcard Zones on an extensive above-ground suburban railway network.

South London, particularly, has a high concentration of railways as it has fewer Underground lines.

Most rail lines terminate around the centre of London, running into eighteen terminal stations , with the exception of the Thameslink trains connecting Bedford in the north and Brighton in the south via Luton and Gatwick airports.

With the need for more rail capacity in London, Crossrail is due to open in It will be a new railway line running east to west through London and into the Home Counties with a branch to Heathrow Airport.

London is the centre of the National Rail network, with 70 percent of rail journeys starting or ending in London.

Some international railway services to Continental Europe were operated during the 20th century as boat trains , such as the Admiraal de Ruijter to Amsterdam and the Night Ferry to Paris and Brussels.

The opening of the Channel Tunnel in connected London directly to the continental rail network, allowing Eurostar services to begin.

Since , high-speed trains link St. Although rail freight levels are far down compared to their height, significant quantities of cargo are also carried into and out of London by rail; chiefly building materials and landfill waste.

London's bus network is one of the largest in the world, running 24 hours a day, with about 8, buses, more than bus routes and around 19, bus stops.

London has the largest wheelchair accessible network in the world [] and, from the 3rd quarter of , became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced.

The distinctive red double-decker buses are an internationally recognised trademark of London transport along with black cabs and the Tube.

London has a modern tram network, known as Tramlink , centred on Croydon in South London. London's first and only cable car, known as the Emirates Air Line , opened in June Crossing the River Thames , linking Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks in the east of the city, the cable car is integrated with London's Oyster Card ticketing system, although special fares are charged.

Similar to the Santander Cycles bike hire scheme, the cable car is sponsored in a year deal by the airline Emirates.

In the whole Greater London Area, around , people use a bike everyday. Cycling is nevertheless becoming increasingly popular way to get around London.

The launch of a cycle hire scheme in July has been successful and generally well received. The London Cycling Campaign lobbies for better provision.

From being the largest port in the world, the Port of London is now only the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year.

London has frequent river boat services on the Thames known as Thames Clippers. The Woolwich Ferry , with 2. Other operators run both commuter and tourist boat services in London.

Although the majority of journeys involving central London are made by public transport, car travel is common in the suburbs.

The inner ring road around the city centre , the North and South Circular roads in the suburbs , and the outer orbital motorway the M25 , outside the built-up area encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into inner London.

A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city the Ringways Plan was prepared in the s but was mostly cancelled in the early s.

London is notorious for its traffic congestion, with the average speed of a car in the rush hour being In , a congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre.

London is a major global centre of higher education teaching and research and has the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe.

A number of world-leading education institutions are based in London. With , students in London, [] the federal University of London is the largest contact teaching university in the UK.

Leisure is a major part of the London economy, with a report attributing a quarter of the entire UK leisure economy to London [] at Within the City of Westminster in London, the entertainment district of the West End has its focus around Leicester Square , where London and world film premieres are held, and Piccadilly Circus , with its giant electronic advertisements.

The city is the home of Andrew Lloyd Webber , whose musicals have dominated the West End theatre since the late 20th century.

Islington 's 1 mile 1. Oxford Street is home to vast numbers of retailers and department stores , including the world-famous Selfridges flagship store.

London offers a great variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically diverse population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of Brick Lane and the Chinese restaurants of Chinatown.

There is a variety of annual events , beginning with the relatively new New Year's Day Parade , a fireworks display at the London Eye ; the world's second largest street party , the Notting Hill Carnival , is held on the late August Bank Holiday each year.

Traditional parades include November's Lord Mayor's Show , a centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a new Lord Mayor of the City of London with a procession along the streets of the City, and June's Trooping the Colour , a formal military pageant performed by regiments of the Commonwealth and British armies to celebrate the Queen's Official Birthday.

London has been the setting for many works of literature. William Shakespeare spent a large part of his life living and working in London; his contemporary Ben Jonson was also based there, and some of his work, most notably his play The Alchemist , was set in the city.

The literary centres of London have traditionally been hilly Hampstead and since the early 20th century Bloomsbury.

Writers closely associated with the city are the diarist Samuel Pepys , noted for his eyewitness account of the Great Fire , Charles Dickens , whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people's vision of early Victorian London, and Virginia Woolf , regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the 20th century.

Modern writers pervasively influenced by the city include Peter Ackroyd , author of a "biography" of London, and Iain Sinclair , who writes in the genre of psychogeography.

London has played a significant role in the film industry. Major studios within or bordering London include Twickenham , Ealing , Shepperton , Pinewood , Elstree and Borehamwood , [] and a special effects and post-production community centred in Soho.

Working Title Films has its headquarters in London. Many television programmes have been set in London, including the popular television soap opera EastEnders , broadcast by the BBC since London is home to many museums , galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role.

The first of these to be established was the British Museum in Bloomsbury , in In , the National Gallery was founded to house the British national collection of Western paintings; this now occupies a prominent position in Trafalgar Square.

In the latter half of the 19th century the locale of South Kensington was developed as " Albertopolis ", a cultural and scientific quarter. Three major national museums are there: The National Portrait Gallery was founded in to house depictions of figures from British history; its holdings now comprise the world's most extensive collection of portraits.

The Tate Gallery, as it was formerly known, also became a major centre for modern art; in , this collection moved to Tate Modern , a new gallery housed in the former Bankside Power Station.

London is one of the major classical and popular music capitals of the world and hosts major music corporations, such as Universal Music Group International and Warner Music Group , as well as countless bands, musicians and industry professionals.

Other significant instruments are at the cathedrals and major churches. Several conservatoires are within the city: London has numerous venues for rock and pop concerts, including the world's busiest arena the O2 arena [] and Wembley Arena , as well as many mid-sized venues, such as Brixton Academy , the Hammersmith Apollo and the Shepherd's Bush Empire.

London was instrumental in the development of punk music , [] with figures such as the Sex Pistols , The Clash , [] and Vivienne Westwood all based in the city.

More recent artists to emerge from the London music scene include George Michael 's Wham! In particular the genres UK garage , drum and bass , dubstep and grime evolved in the city from the foreign genres of hip hop and reggae , alongside local drum and bass.

A report by the City of London Corporation said that London is the "greenest city" in Europe with 35, acres of public parks, woodlands and gardens.

Close to Richmond Park is Kew Gardens which has the world's largest collection of living plants. Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the hectare acre Hampstead Heath of North London , [] and Epping Forest , which covers 2, hectares 6, acres [] in the east.

Both are controlled by the City of London Corporation. Epping Forest is a popular venue for various outdoor activities, including mountain biking, walking, horse riding, golf, angling, and orienteering.

Walking is a popular recreational activity in London. London has hosted the Summer Olympics three times: London's most popular sport is football and it has six clubs in the English Premier League: From , the original Wembley Stadium was the home of the English national football team.

Twickenham Stadium in south-west London hosts home matches for the England national rugby union team and has a capacity of 82, now that the new south stand has been completed.

One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Tennis Championships , held at the All England Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon.

London has two Test cricket grounds, Lord's home of Middlesex C. Other key events are the annual mass-participation London Marathon , in which some 35, runners attempt a From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the capital city. For the region and county of England, see Greater London. For the historic city and financial district within London, see City of London.

For other uses, see London disambiguation. History of London and Timeline of London. London in the UK and EU. Local government in London , History of local government in London , and List of heads of London government.

For more station data near London, see Geography of London. List of districts of London and London boroughs. Architecture of London , List of tallest buildings and structures in London , and List of demolished buildings and structures in London.

London maps showing the percentage distribution of selected races according to the Census. Ethnic groups in London.

St Paul's Cathedral , the seat of the Bishop of London. Transport in London and Infrastructure in London. List of annual events in London and West End theatre.

List of people from London. Parks and open spaces in London and Royal Parks of London. Aerial view of Hyde Park.

James's Park lake with the London Eye in the distance. London and Paris are of broadly similar size in terms of total economic output which can result in third party sources varying as to which is the fifth-largest city GDP in the world.

The McKinsey Global Institute study used a metropolitan area with a population of Eurostat uses the sum of the populations of the contiguous urban core and the surrounding commuting zone as its definition.

According to the Oxford English Reference Dictionary definition of 'the most important town' [] and many other authorities.

Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 26 August Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 23 February Archived from the original on 22 March Essex, Kent, Surrey and Middlesex 50 years on".

Is Bromley in London or Kent? Archived from the original on 14 July Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 January Retrieved 4 May Policy and Management in Local Authorities.

Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 2 March Retrieved 28 September Archived from the original on 28 November Retrieved 16 November Archived from the original on 25 November London School of Economics.

Archived from the original on 18 November Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 5 September Retrieved 12 September Retrieved 27 August Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 3 June National Centre for Language.

Archived from the original on 19 May Retrieved 6 June Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 28 June Archived from the original on 16 October Als Pitt im Jahr vom König gebeten wurde, eine Regierung zusammenzustellen, bevorzugte er das geringere Amt des Lordsiegelbewahrers, das eine Mitgliedschaft im House of Lords voraussetzte.

Dennoch wird er, da er vom König mit der Regierungsbildung beauftragt wurde, allgemein als Premierminister betrachtet.

Noch Ende des Erster Lordschatzmeister in diesen Amtsperioden war jeweils Arthur Balfour. Als Charles Spencer, 3.

Im April legte der Earl of Sunderland dann alle Ämter nieder. Hier beginnt diese Auflistung. AZ werden die einzelnen Amtszeiten chronologisch durchgezählt.

PM die einzelnen Premierminister, bei Premierminister mit mehreren Amtszeiten folgen dessen persönlichen Amtszeiten Klammern.

Viscount Melbourne bereits über zwei Jahre Premierminister. Insgesamt gab es im Viktorianischen Zeitalter von bis zwanzig Amtsperioden britischer Premierminister; diesen vorzustehen, genügten allerdings zehn Politiker, denn nur George Hamilton-Gordon, 4.

Earl of Aberdeen und Archibald Primrose, 5. Earl of Rosebery war lediglich eine Amtszeit vergönnt. Earl of Derby und Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3.

Die übrigen vier Politiker, darunter der berühmte Disraeli , wurden je zwei Mal von der Queen berufen. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.

Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. In anderen Projekten Commons. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 8.

Oktober um Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden.

Frederick North, Lord North. William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 3. William Pitt der Jüngere. Lord John Russell , später 1. Benjamin Disraeli seit 1.

Arthur Balfour später 1.

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